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Harmonic Drive Principle

Times:2019-02-12Clicks:374


The Harmonic Conveyor was invented by American inventor C. Walt Musser Mather in the mid-1950s. It is a new type of transmission that uses the elastic deformation of flexible working members for motion or power transmission. It breaks through the mechanical transmission of the rigid member mechanism and uses a flexible member to achieve mechanical transmission, resulting in a range of special functions that are difficult to achieve with other transmissions. Since the deformation process of the intermediate flexible member is basically a symmetrical harmonic, it is named. Except for the Soviet Union, this kind of transmission is called waveform transmission or flexible wheel transmission, and the United States, Britain, Germany, Japan and other countries are called "harmonic transmission".


First, the composition of the harmonic transmission device

The harmonic transmission is mainly composed of three basic components, namely a wave generator, a flexible wheel and a steel wheel.

Wave generator: consists of a flexible bearing and an elliptical cam. The wave generator is usually mounted at the input end of the reducer, the inner ring of the flexible bearing is fixed on the cam, and the outer ring is elastically deformed into an elliptical shape by the ball.

Flexible wheel: A flexible metal elastic part with an outer ring gear that deforms with the rotation of the wave generator and is usually mounted at the output of the reducer.

Rigid wheel: Rigid ring-shaped part with inner ring gear, generally two more teeth than the flexible wheel, usually fixed on the reducer housing.


Second, the principle of harmonic deceleration

Harmonics are used as reducers, usually in the form of wave generator active, rigid wheel fixed, and flexible wheel output. The harmonic gear transmission deceleration principle refers to the use of the controllable elastic deformation of the flexible wheel to realize the transmission of motion and power when the relative motion of the flexible wheel, the rigid wheel and the wave generator occurs.

When the wave generator is inserted into the inner circle of the flexible wheel, the flexible wheel is forced to be elastically deformed and has an elliptical shape, so that the flexible wheel gear of the long axis is inserted into the tooth groove of the rigid wheel to become a completely tangential state; and the short axis thereof At the two rounds of the teeth, there is no contact at all, and the stalks are disengaged. From the process of engagement to disengagement, it is in a state of being engaged or bitten. When the wave generator rotates continuously, the flexible wheel is forced to deform the cattle, so that the two-wheel teeth constantly change their working states during the process of meshing, meshing, engaging and disengaging, resulting in so-called wrong teeth. Movement, thus achieving the motion transmission of the active wave generator and the flexible wheel.


Third, the characteristics of harmonic transmission

1. High precision: the multi-tooth is meshed at two 180-degree symmetry positions at the same time. Therefore, the gear pitch error and the cumulative pitch error have an average effect on the rotation accuracy, and extremely high positional accuracy and rotation accuracy can be obtained.

2. Large transmission ratio: The transmission ratio of single-stage harmonic gear transmission can be selected from i=30~500, and the structure is simple. Three basic components on the coaxial can realize high reduction ratio.

3. High load carrying capacity: In harmonic drive, the tooth and tooth meshing is surface contact, and the number of meshing teeth is relatively large at the same time, so the load per unit area is small, and the bearing capacity is higher than other transmission forms.

4. Small size and light weight: Compared with ordinary gear units, the size and weight can be greatly reduced, achieving miniaturization and weight reduction.

5. High transmission efficiency and long life

6. Smooth transmission, no impact, low noise


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